Inflammatory Arthritis of the Hip
Inflammation of the joints is referred to as arthritis. The inflammation arises when the smooth covering (cartilage) at the end surfaces of the bones wears away. In some cases, the inflammation is caused when the lining of the joint (synovium) becomes inflamed as part of an underlying systemic disease. These conditions are referred to as inflammatory arthritis.
The most common types of inflammatory arthritic conditions of the hip include:
- Rheumatoid Arthritis: systemic disease of the immune system that commonly affects multiple joints on both sides of the body at the same time
- Ankylosing Spondylitis: chronic inflammatory disease of the spine and the sacroiliac joints (junction where the spine meets the pelvic bone)
- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks its own healthy cells and tissues
The typical symptom of arthritis is joint pain. Inflammatory hip arthritis is mainly characterized by an aching pain in the groin region, outer thighs or buttocks. The pain is commonly most severe in the morning which sometimes lessens with activity during the day. Vigorous activities may result in increased pain and stiffness and limit your movement making walking difficult.
Diagnosis of inflammatory hip arthritis begins with a physical examination. Your doctor will ask you to move your hip in different directions to find out which motions are restricted or painful. X-rays and laboratory tests may be ordered to diagnose or rule out other conditions. X-rays may show thinning or erosion in the bones or loss in joint space. Laboratory studies will show the presence of a rheumatoid factor or other antibodies.
The treatment options vary depending on the diagnosis.
Non-surgical treatment: Inflammation in the hip joint can be treated by non-surgical treatments which may provide relief with relatively few side effects.
- Anti-inflammatory medications or corticosteroids may help reduce the inflammation.
- Physical therapy may be recommended to help you increase the range of motion and strengthening exercises to maintain muscle tone.
- Assistive devices such as canes or walkers can make your daily living activities easier.
Surgical treatment: Surgery is considered the last treatment resort when the above non-surgical treatment options fail to reduce the symptoms. The type of surgery depends on your age, condition of the hip joint, and the type and progression of the inflammatory disease. The goal of the surgery is to relieve pain and improve the joint motion. The most common surgical procedures include
- Total hip replacement: Indicated for patients with significant joint damage from inflammation.
- Core decompression: Helps to reduce bone marrow pressure and encourages blood flow. Core decompression is another treatment option for patients with SLE.