Knee Anatomy

The knee is a complex joint made up of different structures including bones, tendons, ligaments and muscles. They all work together to maintain normal function and provide stability to the knee during movement.

Having a well-functioning healthy knee is essential for our mobility and ability to participate in various activities. Understanding the anatomy of the knee enhances your ability to discuss knee problems with your doctor.


Knee Pain

The knee is one of the largest joints in the body, formed by the lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia and the patella or knee cap. Several ligaments and muscles attach to the bones of the knee joint to maintain normal motion of the joint. Special cartilaginous tissues known as menisci are present between the two articular ends of the joint.

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain is a characterized by a chronic pain over the front and center of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals. Anterior knee pain refers to a variety of conditions which include runner's knee or patellar tendinitis and chondromalacia of the patella.

Chondromalacia Patella

The patella, also called the kneecap is a small bone present on the front of your knee joint. The underside of the patella is covered by cartilage that allows smooth gliding of the knee with movement. Overuse or misalignment of the patella can cause wear and tear of the cartilage.

Baker’s Cyst

The knee consists of a fluid called synovial fluid which reduces friction between the bones of the knee joint while you move your leg. Sometimes this fluid is produced in excess resulting in its accumulation at the back of your knee. A Baker’s cyst or popliteal cyst is a fluid-filled swelling that develops into a lump behind the knee.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is an overuse injury resulting from the inflammation of iliotibial band. The iliotibial band is a tough group of muscle fibers that begins at the top of the pelvis, runs along the outside of the thigh, and attaches to the outer side of the shin bone just below the knee joint.

Meniscal Injuries

The knee is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body and is, therefore, more susceptible to injury. Meniscal tears are among the most common injuries to the knee joint. These tears can occur at any age and can be associated with twisting injuries to the knee or “wear and tear” in older patients.

Meniscal Tears

Meniscal tears are among the most common knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in the knee can cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age.

Knee Arthritis

Arthritis is the general term for any condition where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth cartilage tissue that allows pain free movement in the joint. This surface can wear out leading to the bone ends rubbing one another and causing pain. This condition is referred to as osteoarthritis or “wear and tear” arthritis as it occurs with aging and use. It is the most common type of arthritis.

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg. Patellar tendinitis usually results from repetitive trauma or overuse, particularly from sports activities involving jumping such as basketball or volleyball.

Lateral Meniscus Syndrome

The knee joint is formed by the union of two bones, namely the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (lower leg bone). At the junction of these two bones is a cartilage called the meniscus, which acts as a shock absorber.

Medial Meniscus Syndrome

Medial meniscus injury is much more common that lateral meniscus injury. Differences in the anatomical attachments of the medial meniscus compared to the lateral mean that the medial meniscus becomes distorted during combined flexion and rotation movements in a manner not experienced on the lateral side.

Osteonecrosis of the Knee

Osteonecrosis is a condition in which death of a section of bone occurs because of lack of blood supply to it. It is one of the most common causes of knee pain in older women. Women over the age of 60 years of age are commonly affected, three times more often than men.


Non-surgical Treatments


The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries. Knee problems may arise from degenerative disease such as arthritis, traumatic injuries and sports injuries.


Viscosupplementation refers to the injection of a jelly-like (hyaluronan) preparation into the joint with the goal of reducing friction between the bones. Hyaluronan is a natural substance present in the joint fluid that assists in lubrication. It allows smooth movement of the cartilage covered articulating surfaces of the joint.

Cortisone Injection

Cortisone is a corticosteroid released by the adrenal gland in response to stress and is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Artificial preparations similar to your body’s natural cortisone are injected directly into the affected joint to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.

Physical Therapy

Physiotherapy or physical therapy (PT) is an exercise program that helps you improve movement, relieve pain, encourage blood flow for faster healing, and restore your physical function and fitness level. The main aim of physical therapy is to make your daily activities such as walking, getting in and out of bed, or climbing stairs easier.

Surgical Treatment

Knee Arthroscopy

Knee Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to consider the knee joint to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and most the patient’s discharge from the hospital on the same day of surgery.

Knee Replacement (Arthroplasty)

Patient Specific Knee Options


Partial meniscectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the torn portion of the meniscus from the knee joint. Meniscus is the C-shaped cartilage located in the knee that lubricates the knee joint, acts as shock-absorber, and controls the flexion and extension of joint.